Greenpeace (2012) Fair Fishing. www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/fair-fisheries/ United States of America (2016) Fisheries Treaty between the governments of some Pacific Island States and the United States Government of America Bonfil R, Munro GR, Sumaila UR, Valtysson H, Wright M, Pitcher T, Preikshot D, Haggan N, Pauly D (1998) The footprint of fleets on the world fishery. Campaign for Vulnerable Seas. WWF International, Gland Le Manach F, Chaboud C, Copeland D, Cury P, Gascuel D, Kleisner KM, Standing A, Sumaila UR, Zeller D, Pauly D (2013) Agreement on Access to Public Fisheries in Developing Countries. PLoS ONE 8 (11):1-10 Sustainable fishing: In accordance with the concept of sustainable development, the overall understanding of „sustainable fishing“ is fishing to meet the needs of the current generation, without compromising the ability of future generations to harvest fish for their needs. A more technical definition of the concept would be to fish at a level, in a way that is reasonably assumed to be able to be maintained indefinitely, provided that appropriate responses to ecosystem changes are appropriate. Sustainable fishing requires the conservation of fisheries resources and the preservation of marine biodiversity, while allowing the fishing industry to remain economically viable. For more information on sustainable fishing, click here. The agreement with Norway is the largest fisheries agreement in Northern Europe. It is based on a fishing agreement concluded in 1980 and supplemented by an exchange of letters in 1992. This agreement is managed by annual consultations between the two parties.
Annual consultations traditionally cover two main themes: the setting of TACs for jointly managed common stocks in the North Sea (including cod, plaice and haddock) and the exchange of fishing opportunities. Below is a brief overview of international fisheries regulatory instruments. In another case between Spain and Canada (Spain vs. Canada), a Spanish fishing vessel was seized and its master was arrested for violating the Inshore Fisheries Act by the Canadian authority. Spain took the case to the ICJ, accusing the Canadian authority of violating various principles and norms of international law. The Court found that the dispute between the parties concerned the application of Canada`s conservation and management measures as part of one of the reservations expressed in the Canadian declaration regarding vessels fishing in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) regulatory area.